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WHICH HOLY BOOK IS THE WORD OF GOD
GOD CONTROLS AFFAIRS OF INDIVIDUALS
God of the Bible prophesied about great empires and has demonstrated His almighty power to bring them to pass. Some might argue that God could fulfill prophecies about great empires, but He cannot control the lives of kings and individuals. To convince such skeptics God gave remarkably detailed prophecies in Daniel 11 which have been fulfilled precisely. Let’s look at these prophecies verse by verse and see how God assured that they were brought to pass. The verses are quoted from the NKJV:
Incredible Prophecies in Daniel 11
Daniel 11, Verse 1: “Also in the first year of Darius the Mede, I, even I, stood up to confirm and strengthen him.”
The first year of Darius was 539 BC. The ‘I’ referred to here is God’s angel.
Verse 2: “And now I will tell you the truth: Behold, three more kings will arise in Persia and the fourth shall be far richer than them all; by his strength, through his riches, he shall stir up all against the realm of Greece.”
Daniel received this vision in the third year of Cyrus the Great (Daniel 10:1). God said that four more kings would reign after Cyrus. Actually, there were at least 12 more Persian kings after Cyrus, but the first four were the important ones.
The “three more kings” were Cambyses (530-522 BC), the elder son of Cyrus, who secretly killed his younger brother Smerdis after inheriting the throne, Pseudo-Smerdis (522 BC) an imposter who passed himself off as Cyrus’ younger son, and Darius I (522-486 BC). After the imposter was discovered, the Persian nobles rejected Pseudo-Smerdis in favor of Darius I.
The fourth king Xerxes (the husband of Esther) who was the strongest and richest of them all invaded Greece. He reigned from 486-465 BC.
Verses 3-4: “Then a mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. And when he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken up and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not among his posterity nor according to his dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom shall be uprooted, even for others besides these.”
This verse introduces King Alexander the Great. Alexander’s father, King Philip of Macedonia planned a great invasion to conquer the Persian Empire with an army mainly of Greeks. But he died before the plans could be completed. His son Alexander took over his plans and invaded the Persian Empire. He defeated the Persian army at the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. (Daniel 8:2, 5-6). Then he swept down into Egypt. Then in a final battle at Arbella (331 B.C.) he crushed the Persian Empire. From there Alexander marched on a conquest all the way to India, sweeping all rulers before him. Alexander certainly “ruled with great dominion and did according to his will” as prophesied.
Here is how Daniel 8:4-8 (NKJV) provide details about the rise of the Persian Empire represented by a ram, and its crushing by Alexander, represented by a he-goat:
“3 Then I lifted my eyes and saw, and there, standing beside the river, was a ram which had two horns, and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher one came up last. 4 I saw the ram pushing westward, northward, and southward, so that no animal could withstand him; nor was there any that could deliver from his hand, but he did according to his will and became great.
“5 And as I was considering, suddenly a male goat came from the west, across the surface of the whole earth, without touching the ground; and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. 6 Then he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing beside the river, and ran at him in the fury of his power. 7 And I saw him confronting the ram; he was moved with rage against him, attacked the ram, and broke his two horns. There was no power in the ram to withstand him, but he cast him down to the ground and trampled him; and there was no one that could deliver the ram from his hand. 8 Therefore the male goat grew very great; but when he became strong, the large horn was broken, and in place of it four notable ones came up toward the four winds of heaven.”
Both Daniel 11 and Daniel 8 indicate that Alexander’s kingdom would be broken up and divided into 4 divisions, but not to his posterity. Now see how this verse was fulfilled.
A Manual of Ancient History (Student Series) by Rawlinson says: "Cut off unexpectedly in the vigor of early manhood [in his 33rd year, June, 323 B.C.], he [Alexander] left no inheritor, either of his power or of his projects" (p. 237). Alexander’s infant son was murdered in 310 and an illegitimate brother assassinated in 317. Thus, Alexander had no descendants or blood relatives to succeed him.
Then an attempt was made to hold the empire together jointly in the name of Alexander’s nephew and unborn son. But that attempt failed. Then Antigonus, one of Alexander’s generals, made a bid for power. But he was unable to consolidate his position. In the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE, the coalition of Seleucus, Lysimachus and Ptolemy defeated him and he died in that battle. That is the meaning of the phrase “for his kingdom shall be uprooted, even for others besides these.”
By 301 B.C. four divisions emerged out of the Kingdom, each ruled by one of Alexander’s generals, just as prophesied. These were:
1. Ptolemy (Soter), ruling Egypt, part of Syria and Judea.
2. Seleucus (Nicator), ruling Syria, Babylonia and territory east to India.
3. Lysimachus, ruling Asia Minor.
4. Cassander, ruling Greece and Macedonia.”
Cassander and Lysimachus were the two weaker of the four generals.
The other two, however, ruling in Syria and Egypt respectively expanded their rule and territory and engaged in two centuries of conflict and struggle in the Middle East. It is these two kingdoms, one north of Jerusalem (The Seleucid empire in Syria), the other south (the Ptolemies of Egypt) that Daniel 11 primarily focuses on in the next several verses.
Verse 5: “Also the king of the South shall become strong, as well as one of his princes; and he shall gain power over him and have dominion. His dominion shall be a great dominion.”
The king of the South mentioned here was Ptolemy I. The phrase “one of his princes” refers to Seleucus Nicator, who originally served as a general under Ptolemy. While Ptolemy was tied up in war after Alexander’s death, Seleucus gained control in the north, and founded the Seleucid dynasty. As verse 5 says, this dynasty actually wielded more power than the king of the south. Seleucus ended up with Alexander’s far-eastern territory, all the way to India. His western boundary included the region known as Syria today. He also ruled the areas known anciently as Assyria and Babylon.
From this point on in the prophecy, the angel focuses on Egypt under the Ptolemies, known as the ‘King of the South’ and Greater Syria under the Seleucids, known as the “King of the North.
Verse 6: “And at the end of some years they shall join forces, for the daughter of the king of the South shall go to the king of the North to make an agreement; but she shall not retain the power of her authority, and neither he nor his authority shall stand; but she shall be given up, with those who brought her, and with him who begot her, and with him who strengthened her in those times.”
Both kingdoms remained hostile to one another. In 285 BCE Ptolemy I died. Meanwhile Antiochus II (called Theos) came to the throne in Syria. In 260 he initiated a war with the King of the South. The war was terminated in 252 when the two powers attempted an agreement whereby the daughter (Bernice) of the King of the South, Ptolemy (II) Philadelphus, was to marry the King of the North. Antiochus II divorced his wife Laodice. (George Rawlinson, A Manual of Ancient History, pp. 251-252.) But neither Antiochus Theos nor Bernice could retain that power. After Ptolemy Philadelphus died in 247 BC, Antiochus II promptly gave up Bernice and retook Laodice as his wife. But still angry from being banished years earlier, Laodice stayed with Theos long enough to conceive and then had her husband poisoned, thus securing the throne for his and her son, Seleucus II. She then tracked down Bernice and had her assassinated as well, squelching any hope of the Ptolemies to have a descendent on the Seleucid throne in the north. Fulfillment of these detailed prophecies indicates that God can raise any human beings to fulfill any purpose He wishes.
Verses 7-9: “But from a branch of her roots [meaning from Bernice’s parents, or a sibling] one shall arise in his place, who shall come with an army, enter the fortress of the king of the North, and deal with them and prevail. And he shall also carry their gods captive to Egypt, with their princes and their precious articles of silver and gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the North. Then the king of the North shall come to the kingdom of the king of the South, but shall return to his own land.”
Soon after Laodice killed his sister Bernice, Ptolemy III sought to avenge his sister’s death. Rawlinson says: "Ptolemy Euergetes [the III, eldest son of Philadelphus (p. 272) and therefore Bernice's brother, a branch of her roots] invaded Syria, B.C. 245, to avenge the murder of his sister, Bernice...In the war which followed, he carried everything before him" (Rawlinson, ibid., p. 252).
Ptolemy III attacked the king of the North [Seleucus II] and captured the capital city of Antioch. He carried back with him immense wealth and many idols and vessels that Persian Emperor Cambyses had taken from Egypt in 526 BC.
Ptolemy III continued to rule till his death in 221 BC, nearly six years after the death of Seleucus II in 226 BC, thus fulfilling the words “he shall continue more years than the king of the North”. Seleucus II had attempted an attack on Ptolemy III, but returned to Syria when his attempt failed, thus fulfilling the prophetic words “Then the king of the North shall come to the kingdom of the king of the South, but shall return to his own land.”
Verses 10-12: “However, his sons shall stir up strife, and assemble a multitude of great forces; and one shall certainly come and overwhelm and pass through; then he shall return to his fortress and stir up strife. And the king of the South shall be moved with rage, and go out and fight with him, with the king of the North, who shall muster a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into the hand of his enemy. When he has taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he will cast down tens of thousands, but he will not prevail.”
After their father’s death, the sons of Seleucus II (Seleucus III and Antiochus III the Great) assembled great forces and attacked the king of the South to recover their Port and fortress Seleucia. Seleucus III reigned for only 3 years because he was poisoned. But Antiochus III did “overwhelm and pass through,” recovering his fortress Seleucia and conquering Judea. However, he gained control of Judea only for a short time.
Antiochus III returned to his fortress, but his taking Judea stirred up strife. It enraged Ptolemy IV, the king of the South. He retaliated and defeated the much larger army of Antiochus III at the battle of Raphia. He killed tens of thousands of Syrian troops and retook Judea to Egypt.
Even though Ptolemy IV won the battle, he did not consolidate the victory for Egypt, thus fulfilling the words ‘he will not prevail’. He made a hasty peace with Antiochus III and returned to debauched living in Egypt.
Verses 13-16: “For the king of the North will return and muster a multitude greater than the former and shall certainly come at the end of some years with a great army and much equipment. And in those times, many shall rise up against the king of the South; also, certain violent men of your people shall exalt themselves in fulfillment of the vision, but they shall fall. So the king of the North shall come and build a siege mound, and take a fortified city; and the forces of the South shall not withstand him. Even his choice troops shall have no strength to resist. But he who comes against him shall do according to his own will, and no one shall stand against him. He shall stand in the Glorious Land with destruction in his power.”
Ptolemy IV died in 204 BC, and his infant son, Ptolemy (V) Epiphanes came to the throne. The Egyptian provinces were in turmoil because of the terrible rule of Ptolemy IV. So Antiochus III formed a coalition, assembled a great army and attacked Egypt in 201 BC. He made an alliance with Philip (V) of Macedonia and others; and according to Josephus, many Jews sympathetic to him joined him against the king of the South.
That was in fulfillment of the phrase “certain violent men of your [Daniel’s] people shall exalt themselves in fulfillment of the vision.” But the Egyptian general Scopus crushed this rebellion (v. 14).
Then the king of the North (Antiochus III) responded with another invasion. He captured the fortified city of Sidon in 198 BC, where Scopus surrendered. After capturing Sidon, Antiochus defeated Egypt at Mount Panium in 198 BC and took complete control of Judea (the “Glorious Land”).
Verse 17: A clearer and better translation of this verse is provided in the Revised English Bible: “He [the king of the North, Antiochus III] will resolve to advance with the full might of his kingdom; and, when he has agreed terms with the king of the south, he will give his young daughter in marriage to him, with a view to the destruction of the kingdom; but the treaty will not last nor will it be his purpose which is served.”
After having defeated Scopus, Antiochus III wanted to control all of Egypt. With this goal in mind, he gave his daughter Cleopatra (not the Egyptian queen of 31 BCE) to Ptolemy V in marriage. Rawlinson says on page 254, "Coele-Syria and Palestine promised as a dowry, but not delivered." He hoped that she would act in his interests. But she sided instead with her husband, frustrating her father’s purpose and thus fulfilling the words “nor will it be his purpose which is served.”
Verses 18-19: “After this he shall turn his face to the coastlands, and shall take many. But a ruler shall bring the reproach against them to an end; and with the reproach removed, he shall turn back on him. Then he shall turn his face toward the fortress of his own land; but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.”
When Antiochus III realized that his purpose in Egypt was frustrated, he began a campaign against islands and cities of Asia Minor and the Aegean. He also gave asylum to Hannibal of Carthage, the enemy of Rome. Hannibal assists Antiochus in landing in Greece, bringing him into conflict with Rome. The ruler who brings the reproach of defeat in Asia Minor and the Aegean coasts to an end is the young Roman general Scipio who defeated Antiochus at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. The Romans deprived him of much of his territory, and took several hostages to Rome, including Antiochus’ son. In addition, Rome imposed heavy tribute upon him.
Antiochus returned to his fortress Antioch in disgrace. Unable to pay the heavy tribute demanded by the Romans, Antiochus tried to plunder the Temple of Belus in Elymais within his own kingdom. This enraged the people so much that the local forces killed him, thus fulfilling the words “Then he shall turn his face toward the fortress of his own land; but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.”
Verse 20: “There shall arise in his place one who imposes taxes on the glorious kingdom; but within a few days he shall be destroyed, but not in anger or in battle.”
After Antiochus III’s death, his son Seleucus (IV) Philopater was also unable to pay the taxes to Rome (apocryphal book 2 Maccabees 3:7-40). He sent Heliodorus, a Jew, to plunder the temple at Jerusalem. But Heliodorus obtained nothing. Seleucus later poisoned by Heliodorus was thus killed ‘but not in anger or in battle.’ Heliodorus then assumed control with the support of other Syrian officials who were tired of the excesses of the Seleucid rulers.
Verse 21: “And in his place shall arise a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honor of royalty; but he shall come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue.”
In the place of Seleucus IV, his younger brother, the infamous Antiochus (IV) Ephphanes arose to whom the Syrian officials supporting Heliodorus would not give the honor of royalty. Antiochus Epiphanes had earlier been taken as hostage to Rome. But by flattery he enlisted the aid of neighboring king Eumenes II of Pergamum and officials at home in forcing out Heliodorus and obtained the throne (ruling from 175-164 BC.) “He astonishes his subjects by an affectation of Roman manners” and “good natured profuseness” [flattery] (Rawlinson, Manual of Ancient History, p. 255).
Verse 22: “With the force of a flood they shall be swept away from before him and be broken, and also the prince of the covenant.”
Those who opposed Antiochus Epiphanes, including Heliodorus were swept away by him. The prince of the covenant referred to here is the Jewish high priest. Verse 22 is saying that Antiochus would even go so far as to murder the Jewish high priest. History confirms that Onias III was high priest in Judea at the time, and that Antiochus put him to death in 172 B.C. According to Rawlinson (Manual of Ancient History, p. 255), Jews “were driven to desperation by the mad project of this self-willed monarch.” Antiochus IV appointed a Hellenistic Jew who changed his name to the Greek Jason as the replacement high priest. But only after 3 years he was replaced by another Hellenizing apostate named Menelaus.
Verses 23-24: “And after the league is made with him he shall act deceitfully, for he shall come up and become strong with a small number of people. He shall enter peaceably, even into the richest places of the province; and he shall do what his fathers have not done, nor his forefathers: he shall disperse among them the plunder, spoil, and riches; and he shall devise his plans against the strongholds, but only for a time.”
After the Jews made a treaty with him, Antiochus Epiphanes acted deceitfully with them. Even though he had only a small number of supporters in the beginning, he eventually gained a large following through deceit and flatteries and became strong. He entered Galilee peaceably. As a temporary ploy to gain support among the masses, Antiochus took from the rich and gave to the poor. Then he did what his fathers or forefathers had not done. Rulers before him had typically treated the Jews well. But Antiochus IV far exceeded his fathers in his ruthlessness and cruelty toward the Jews. He also imposed unbearable taxes on the Jews. Much of this struggle between the Jews and the Syrian kingdom is recorded in the apocryphal book of Maccabees (in the Hebrew Bible).
Verses 25-27: “He shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the South with a great army. And the king of the South shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand, for they shall devise plans against him. Yes, those who eat of the portion of his delicacies shall destroy him; his army shall be swept away, and many shall fall down slain. Both these kings’ hearts shall be bent on evil, and they shall speak lies at the same table; but it shall not prosper, for the end will still be at the appointed time.”
In this case, Antiochus IV was stirred up to war with Egypt by his nephew Ptolemy VI, the son of Ptolemy V and Antiochus IV’s sister Cleopatra. Rawlinson, pages 255-256, says, "Threatened with war by the ministers of Ptolemy Philometor [now king of the south], who claim Coele-Syria and Palestine as the dowry of Cleopatra, the late queen-mother, Antiochus marches against Egypt...B.C. 171" (pp. 277-278). But he was met by his nephew leading another immense army from Egypt.
But Ptolemy VI did not stand, for his own trusted officers plotted against him. Antiochus IV was victorious at Pelusium. Continuing in Rawlinson, p. 278: "After his victory at Pelusium, Antiochus advanced to Memphis, and having obtained possession of the young king's person [Ptolemy Philometor, king of the south], endeavored to use him as a tool for effecting the entire reduction of the country." In 174 BCE, both these kings sat at a banquet. Antiochus pretended to ally himself with the young Ptolemy, against his brother, Euergetes II, but each was trying to deceive the other. Their lies did not prosper and the outcome would be as God predetermined it.
Verse 28: “While returning to his own land with great riches, his heart shall be moved against the holy covenant; so he shall do damage and return to his own land.”
Antiochus while returning to Syria in 168 BCE with great plunder from Egypt, encountered another Maccabean insurrection. Verse 28 says his heart was moved against the “holy covenant,” meaning the Jewish worship system. “He shall do damage” means Antiochus looted the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem of many golden vessels and massacred many Jews. Greek historian Polybius mentioned that he “despoiled most sanctuaries.”
Verses 29-30: “At the appointed time he shall return and go toward the south; but it shall not be like the former or the latter. For ships from Cyprus [the actual word used is Kittim, which is Hebrew for “western lands,” here meaning Rome] shall come against him; therefore, he shall be grieved, and return in rage against the holy covenant, and do damage. So he shall return and show regard for those who forsake the holy covenant.”
In verse 29, God prophesied of a third campaign by Antiochus into Egypt. But this one did not fair well for him like the previous two successful ones. He was cut off by a Roman fleet from Cyprus. Popillius, the commander of the Roman fleet forced Antiochus IV to accept surrender terms in which he had to end his campaign against Egypt and restore the island of Cyprus to Egyptian rule. On returning home through Judea, Antiochus IV vented his frustration and anger on the Jews. He plotted with leaders inside the temple, showing favor to those who rejected the Jewish religion and adopted the pagan Greek (Hellenistic) customs, but persecuting those who remained loyal.
Antiochus did his utmost to destroy the Jewish religion, by passing laws that forbade its practice. He forced some to violate Jewish laws, and murdered them if they refused. For example, Eleazar, an aged scribe was forced to open his mouth to eat swine’s flesh. He refused, and himself went to the rack and was flogged to death. In another case, two women who had circumcised their children were publicly paraded around the city and then hurled down headlong from the wall. Others who had gathered together in a cave to keep the Sabbath day secretly were betrayed and all burned together. A mother and her seven sons were tortured one after the other and killed in the presence of the governor for refusing to eat swine’s flesh.
Verse 31: “And forces shall be mustered by him, and they shall defile the sanctuary fortress; then they shall take away the daily sacrifices, and place there the abomination of desolation.”
This verse refers to the horrid events of 168 BC which are described in 2 Maccabees 5:11-15. Antiochus Epiphanes thought Judea was in a revolt. So he mustered his armed forces and entered Jerusalem and killed 80,000 men, women and children. He then defiled the Temple by setting up a statue of the Greek god Zeus (Rawlinson, ibid. p. 255) [the “abomination of desolation”] in the holy of holies – the holiest inner most place in the Temple - and sacrificed a pig on the temple altar. He stopped the daily sacrifice and tried to stamp out the Jewish religion completely.
Verses 32-35: “Those who do wickedly against the covenant he shall corrupt with flattery; but the people who know their God shall be strong, and carry out great exploits. And those of the people who understand shall instruct many; yet for many days they shall fall by sword and flame, by captivity and plundering. Now when they shall fall, they shall be aided with a little help; but many shall join with them by intrigue. And some of those of understanding shall fall, to refine them, purge them, and make them white, until the time of the end; because it is still for the appointed time.”
Antiochus IV corrupted the apostate Jews with flattery and rewards for forsaking their religion and adopting Hellenistic culture. Many Jews succumbed to his persecution and rewards for apostasy.
But the time frame of the prophecy changes in verse 32 and has a dual aspect. It refers to people who knew their God at that time, the Maccabees, [who were the patriotic followers of Judas Maccabeus of the Hasmonian priestly dynasty and were determined to continue to keep God’s law] and later the Christians.
The Maccabees resisted Antiochus Epiphanes and his successors. When an officer of Antiochus came to the city of Modein to enforce Antiochus’ decree concerning idolatrous worship, Mattathias, the leading priest slew him. Then Mattathias fled to the hills and led a band of guerrillas. Thus began the Maccabees revolt against Antiochus.
Mattathias was helped in his cause by his five sons, particularly Judas, nick-named Maqqaba (Aramaic for hammer, from which the name Maccabees is derived). Many of these patriots died for the cause. But their heroism ultimately drove the Syrians out of the country.
In their dual aspect, these verses also refer to the true Christians and the Church, prophesying their coming mighty works of instructing many and converting them to Christianity, and their persecution by sword, flame, captivity and plundering. When they are persecuted, God would help them with a little help (which would include God’s holy spirit, giving them tremendous strength to remain faithful even when faced with martyrdom), but would allow many to be martyred to test and try them and purge them. Others would infiltrate the Churches by intrigue. Some of the true Christians would be martyred, to purge them, refine their character and make them spiritually white or pure. This would go on till the time of the end, meaning the return of Jesus Christ.
Verse 35 refers to the “time of the end.” This means that the previous verses were prophecies that applied to the contests between the Seleucid and Egyptian dynasties, and later to the Seleucids and the Jewish patriots, the Maccabees. Thus we have seen that these verses have been precisely fulfilled in history, from the rule of Cyrus the Great to the time of the Maccabees.
Verse 36: “Then the king shall do according to his own will: he shall exalt and magnify himself above every god, shall speak blasphemies against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the wrath has been accomplished; for what has been determined shall be done.”
The prophecy now shifts to New Testament times. In 65 BCE Rome took possession of Syria [hence Judea as well] which became a Roman province. The Roman emperor now became the king of the North. Verse 36 is an apt description of Roman emperors who did according to their will, instituting emperor worship, thus exalting themselves above God. The phrase “shall prosper till the wrath has been accomplished” means that the Roman Empire will persist in some form or another right till the very end, when Jesus Christ shall return and God’s wrath on the Roman Empire will be completed.
Verse 37: “He shall regard neither the God [correct rendering is ‘gods’] of his fathers nor the desire of women, nor regard any god; for he shall magnify himself above them all.”
The Roman emperors did not regard their old Roman gods. The phrase they also did not have “a desire for women” indicates that the emperors were either homosexuals (14 of the first 15 emperors were actually homosexuals) or exalted themselves above the Babylonian god Tammuz for whom women wept. Roman emperors did not regard any of these gods because they instituted emperor worship and magnified themselves above all these gods.
Verses 38-39: “But in their place he shall honor a god of fortresses [or forces, KJV]; and a god which his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and pleasant things. Thus, he shall act against the strongest fortresses with a foreign god, which he shall acknowledge, and advance its glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and divide the land for gain.”
The Roman emperors demanded worship of the emperor as well as the empire itself because of its strength. Standards were idolatrous emblems of empire/emperor worship. In addition, enormous defense expenditures made Rome the strongest military power the world had ever seen till that time, thus fulfilling the prophecy “he shall honor the god of forces”.
But then, beginning with Constantine the Great in 313 AD, Roman emperors began to honor a god, the pope of the false Church based in Rome, that his fathers did not know, with gold, silver, precious stones and other pleasant things.
Later Roman emperors, and after that rulers of later resurrections of the Roman Empire began to act against the strongest enemy states and religious institutions on behalf of the foreign god [the papacy, which was of Babylonian origin, the original Babylonian Mystery Religion]. They acknowledged the papacy as a god and worked to advance its glory. They caused the popes to rule over many peoples and divided the land for the benefit of both church and state. The pope calls himself the Vicar of Christ, meaning “in place of Christ.” Thus, the pope calls himself a ‘god’ in place of Christ.
Verses 36-39 covered the centuries from the beginning of Christianity in the early Roman Empire to the origin of the Catholic Church and the Catholic-dominated Holy Roman Empire with its seven resurrections right down to our modern times. The seventh resurrection is yet in the near future.
Thus, we see a demonstration of God’s Almighty power in first prophesying these events and then fulfilling them unerringly. Individual kings, queens and generals are mentioned and what each would do. All these prophecies have been fulfilled. All this is ancient history. It would serve no purpose in our time to record all this other than to convince the skeptic beyond a shadow of doubt that God of the Bible has total and complete control in the affairs of men. God can raise men and women, foretell what they would do centuries in advance, and bring it to pass unerringly demonstrating His total control over the lives of individuals, including kings. Besides being a demonstration of God’s Almighty power, fulfillment of such intricate and detailed prophecies is also proof that the Bible is the true inspired word of God. Each and every word in it is God inspired and can be relied upon. Book of no other religion dares to prophesy like this the fulfillment of which can be proven by history.
Now the remaining verses of Daniel 11 move to the time frame called “the time of the end”, yet in the future, to the time of the seventh resurrection of the Holy Roman Empire.
Verses 40-45: “40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south [which from other prophecies will be an alliance headed by an Islamic power] push at him: and the king of the north [which since the time of the Roman Empire has always been the Roman Empire or the Holy Roman Empire] shall come against him like a whirlwind , with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. 41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. 42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape. 43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps. 44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore, he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many. 45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.”
These verses describe yet a future war between the King of the North, a European alliance headed by a military dictator, in all likelihood a German, and the King of the South, an Islamic alliance. The King of the North defeats the King of the South. He will then likely set up his regional headquarters in the holy land, but mobilization of the Kings of the East will trouble him. He will go forth in his fury to destroy them. But God prophecies that he shall come to his end at the second coming of Jesus Christ, and no one will help him.
This prophecy is described in summary form in the article titled “Summary of Sequence of End-Time Events,” and in detail in the book “World in Bible Prophecy,” both available free under the Literature tab.
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