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DOES GOD EXIST?


CHAPTER 4


PROOF# 2 - DESIGN IN CREATION DEMANDS A MASTER DESIGNER


For more detailed understanding of this section, I recommend reading the following three booklets:

1. “Life’s Ultimate Question: Does God Exist?”, published by the United Church of God, available free of charge at the Church website www.ucg.org. The link is: https://www.ucg.org/bible-study-tools/booklets/lifes-ultimate-question-does-god-exist/

2. “Creation or Evolution: Does it Really Matter What you Believe?”, published by the United Church of God, available free of charge at www.ucg.org. The link is:https://www.ucg.org/bible-study-tools/booklets/creation-or-evolution-does-it-really-matter-what-you-believe

3. “Does God Exist?”, published by the Restored Church of God, available at www.rcg.org. The link is https://rcg.org/books/dge.html  

We have seen that life on earth did not evolve, or create itself out of nothing, the only alternative is that the universe and life on earth were created. Studies of the universe by astronomers and scientists, and living matter by biologists show that both have been very intricately and intelligently designed. Both are governed by well defined laws which we can rely on, and those laws are sustained, means keep working, by power. There is a great Power that sustains these laws. This great intelligent Power has thus created the universe, all life, and sustains the laws that govern them. 

Here are some examples of complex and intricate design in nature.

Incredible Complexity of Life Forms

Drilling Deeper into DNA

We have already described the bewilderingly incredible complexity of a single cell, invisible to the naked eye, with tens of thousands, if not hundreds of thousands, proteins functioning like a variety of robot-like machines purposefully moving in all directions. Could such an average single cell with such incredible complexity have come into being by itself? And the human body is far more complex than a single cell; about 10-100 trillion times more complex because that is the estimated number of cells it has.

Now let’s drill a little deeper inside the cell, into the genetic structure in the nucleus of our cells, called DNA. Scientists have discovered that the human DNA molecule contains an elegant ‘language’ composed of some 3 billion genetic letters. 

United Church of God booklet “Life’s Ultimate Question: Does God Exist?” states: “It’s hard for us to fathom, but the amount of information in human DNA is roughly equivalent to 12 sets of The Encyclopedia Britannica— an incredible 384 volumes’ worth of detailed information that would fill 48 feet of library shelves!

“Yet in their actual size—which is only two millionths of a millimeter thick—a teaspoon of DNA, according to molecular biologist Michael Denton, could contain all the information needed to build the proteins for all the species of organisms that have ever lived on the earth, with “enough room left for all the information in every book ever written” (Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, 1996, p. 334).

“Who or what could miniaturize such information and place this enormous number of “letters” in their proper sequence as a genetic instruction manual? Could evolution have gradually come up with a system like this?”

“Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, commented that “DNA is like a software program, only much more complex than anything we’ve ever devised.” Can you imagine something more intricate than the most complex program running on a supercomputer being devised by accident through evolution—no matter how much time, how many mutations and how much natural selection are taken into account?”

“The precision of this genetic language is such that the average mistake that is not caught turns out to be one error per 10 billion letters. If a mistake occurs in one of the most significant parts of the code, which is in the genes, it can cause a disease such as sickle-cell anemia. Yet even the best and most intelligent typist in the world couldn’t come close to making only one mistake per 10 billion letters—far from it.”

This is the complex and highly specific information that accomplishes the astonishing task of building biological nano machines within the human cell. “Even one of the discoverers of the genetic code, the agnostic…Francis Crick, after decades of work on deciphering it, admitted that “an honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, could only state that in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to be almost a miracle, so many are the conditions which would have had to have been satisfied to get it going” (Life Itself: Its Origin and Nature, 1981, p. 88).

“The coding regions of DNA,” explains Dr. Stephen Meyer, “have exactly the same relevant properties as a computer code or language” (quoted by Lee Strobel, The Case for a Creator, 2004, p. 237). Dr. Stephen Meyer considers the recent discoveries about DNA to be the Achilles’ heel of evolutionary theory. He observes: “Evolutionists are still trying to apply Darwin’s nineteenth-century thinking to a twenty-first century reality, and it’s not working…I think the information revolution taking place in biology is sounding the death knell for Darwinism and chemical evolutionary theories” (quoted by Strobel, p. 243).

“One of the world’s most famous atheists, Professor Antony Flew, admitted…, “What I think the DNA material has done is show that intelligence must have been involved in getting these extraordinary diverse elements together,” (quoted by Richard Ostling, “Leading Atheist Now Believes in God,” Associated Press report, Dec. 9, 2004).

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Evolutionists want us to believe that life evolved from the first living cell that was created out of inanimate matter through a lucky accident into higher order, more complex forms. They mean that life is evolving into better and more perfect forms constantly. But this notion flies in the face of another law of nature called the Second Law of Thermodynamics.  

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that for an isolated system, the natural course of events takes the system to a more disordered (higher entropy) state. Entropy is the measure of the disorder of a system. If snapshots of a system are taken at two points in time, according to the application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the system that shows more disorder, meaning increase in entropy, came later. A part of the energy in the system becomes unavailable for use. 

When the Second Law of Dynamics is applied to the universe, it means that the entire universe is winding down. Radioactive elements are proof that the universe is winding down, because uranium, radium and other radioactive elements are winding down to the inert element lead. This shows that the theory of evolution is not in conformity with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 

Morris, Henry M., writes in The Twilight of Evolution, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1967, p. 35): “Regarding the second law of thermodynamics (universally accepted scientific law which states that all things left to themselves will tend to run down) or the law of entropy, it is observed, ‘It would hardly be possible to conceive of two more completely opposite principles than this principle of entropy increase and the principle of evolution. Each is precisely the converse of the other. As (Aldous) Huxley defined it, evolution involves a continual increase of order, of organization, of size, of complexity. It seems axiomatic that both cannot possibly be true. But there is no question whatever that the second law of thermodynamics is true.”

Since the universe is winding down, It had to be originally wound up like a top, the toy. Who wound up the universe originally? The only possible answer is: “God did at the time of creation of the heavens and the earth.”

Since the Second Law of Thermodynamics is true, the incredible complexity we see in one cell and all higher forms of life could not have evolved from lower forms of life. Thus life had to have been created.

Universe Fine-Tuned for Human Life

Astronomers and scientists tell us that the earth is uniquely designed for life. Could such perfect conditions have existed without having first been designed by an Intelligent Being? Scientists have searched for life on other planets and moons and have drawn a blank. The spaceship analogy to describe the earth has been taken from the UCG booklet “Does God Exist?”  

Wouldn’t you love to travel safely in a spaceship? Wonderful News! You already are. Spaceship earth carries nearly 7.5 billion people and billions of animals, hurtling through space at the speed of 66,600 miles/hour, while spinning at 1000 miles/hour at the equator. Every year we complete a journey of half a billion miles around the sun. We do it very safely, without even feeling it.

Only about 30 years ago, many astronomers were of the opinion that the earth is in no way an exceptional planet, and that the universe must be teeming with life. Astronomer Carl Sagan summarized the astronomers’ view by calling it “the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe” (Pale Blue Dot, 1994, p. 7, as quoted in UCG booklet “Does God Exist?”).

But discoveries in the last 30 years have proved the astronomers of a generation ago wrong, because the earth has turned out to be a very privileged planet.

Here are the incredible ways in which our earth is privileged so that it can support teeming life safely:

1).  Our Sun is positioned far from the Milky Way's center in a zone of low radiation, in the arm of the Milky Way which puts the earth in the best location to observe the universe. The earth orbits the sun at a position which is termed the Goldilocks Zone, which refers to the habitable zone around a star where the temperature is just right - not too hot or cold - for stable liquid water to exist in order to support life. 


2).  Every spaceship needs a porthole to view what is outside. Our spaceship, earth, has a window made of an approximately 430 mile transparent crystal - our atmosphere - that allows us to view everything outside from anywhere on the surface. Compare that with some other planets that have an atmosphere filled with thick clouds making it impossible to see anything outside from their surface.


3).  Our atmosphere has a mixture of gases ideal for human, animal and plant life, which has a mechanism to renew itself. Air contains 21% oxygen without which all animate life would die. But if the proportion of oxygen was higher, say 24%, objects would literally burst into flames much more frequently which would be harder to control. Nitrogen comprises 78 of air which dilutes the oxygen. The lightening in thunderstorms also combines nitrogen and oxygen to create compounds that fall to the earth as part of rain which are then utilized by plants to grow. Carbon dioxide makes up about 0.04% of the air, without which plant life would not be possible. Plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Humans and animals on the other hand breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide, thus creating a self-sustaining cycle perfectly suited for all life on earth.


4).  Planet earth is perfectly designed to provide plenty of delicious nourishing food ideally suited for each and everyone of its inhabitants, plenty of stable water without which life could not exist, perfectly hospitable climate, plenty of beautiful scenery to enjoy, sufficient land to grow, abundant renewable resources for all of its inhabitants’ needs, requiring useful work to access them to keep them occupied. With good stewardship, the resources should last far into the future.


5).  More ways in which the earth is so fine-tuned for life is its size and the thickness of its crust. The size of a planet determines its gravity. If the earth were a little larger, the light gas hydrogen would be unable to escape the earth’s gravity and would accumulate in its atmosphere. If the earth were a little smaller, oxygen would escape and water would evaporate. Thus, if the earth was slightly smaller or larger, life could not exist on it. If the earth’s crust were thinner the earthquake and volcanic activity would increase and volcanic ash would pervade the atmosphere. If the crust were thicker, the chemically bound oxygen molecules as oxides would remain below the surface, upsetting the free oxygen cycle without which all life would ultimately perish.


6).  The earth orbits the sun at just the right distance and is tilted at an optimum 23.5 degrees from its axis to keep the temperature on earth comfortable. Fred Meldau points out: “If the earth had been tilted as much as 45 degrees instead of what it is, temperate zones would have torrid zone heat in the summer and frigid zone cold in the winter. On the other hand, if the axis of the earth were vertical to the plane of its orbit, January and July would have the same climate and ice would accumulate until much of the continents would be ice-covered six months and flooded the other six months” (Why We Believe in Creation Not in Evolution, 1972, pp. 27-28, as quoted in UCG booklet “Does God Exist?).


7).  Astronomer Hugh Ross explains how the distance at which the earth orbits the sun is optimal for life: “As biochemists now concede, for life molecules to operate so that organisms can live requires an environment where liquid water is stable. This means that a planet cannot be too close to its star or too far away. In the case of planet Earth, a change in the distance from the sun as small as 2 percent would rid the planet of all life…(The Creator and the Cosmos, 2001, pp. 135-136). 


8).  Hugh Ross also explains how the time it takes for the earth to rotate around its axis (around 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds) that gives us the days and nights is important: “The rotation period of a life-supporting planet cannot be changed by more than a few percent. If the planet takes too long to rotate, temperature differences between day and night will be too great. On the other hand, if the planet rotates too rapidly, wind velocities will rise to catastrophic levels. A quiet day on Jupiter (rotation period of ten hours), for example, generates thousand mph winds…” (ibid.) 

We may well agree with King David in Psalm 89:11, “The heavens are yours, the earth also is yours: as for the world and the fulness thereof, you have founded them.”   

9).  Again, viewing the earth as a spaceship, what does the cockpit contain? UCG booklet “Does God Exist?” describes it this way: “Incredibly, no pilot is aboard, but instead we find an “autopilot” system governed by carefully adjusted physical laws. Although no one is seen physically aboard our spaceship to manage the system, our planet faithfully obeys the programmed, finely tuned commands of the myriad of physical laws and completes its yearlong journey around the sun, dutifully returning to its starting point only to begin yet another circuit. In this cockpit, although not seen, are the equivalent of hundreds of elaborate dials, each regulating an aspect of our planet’s features. Each dial has been carefully calibrated to permit life to flourish on the planet. You can’t see the great Engineer who set up the system, but you can measure the precision of each setting—and every one is just right!

"About the precise settings of the earth, Professor Robin Collins says: “I like to use the analogy of astronauts landing on Mars and finding an enclosed biosphere, sort of like the domed structure that was built in Arizona a few years ago. At the control panel they find that all the dials for its environment are set just right for life. The oxygen ratio is perfect; the temperature is seventy degrees; the humidity is fifty percent; there’s a system for replenishing the air; there are systems for producing food, generating energy, and disposing of wastes.

“Each dial has a huge range of possible settings, and you can see if you were to adjust one or more of them just a little bit, the environment would go out of whack and life would be impossible” (quoted by Lee Strobel, The Case for a Creator, 2004, p. 130).

The earth is definitely not a lucky accident as the evolutionists like to say. It has been perfectly designed by the Creator for life.

10).  The earth is afforded incredible protection in a variety of ways without which life would be impossible:

A)  The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects all life from harmful ultraviolet rays which can cause skin cancers, premature aging and problems of the eye.
B)  The moon takes some meteor strikes, but the giants Saturn and Jupiter because of their huge gravity absorb most of the comets and asteroids, thus preventing them from striking the earth.  

Dr. Hugh Ross describes how these planets play a vital role in preserving life on earth: “Late in 1993, planetary scientists George Wetherell, of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., made an exciting discovery about our solar system. In observing computer simulations of our solar system, he found that without a Jupiter-sized planet positioned just where it is, Earth would be struck about a thousand times more frequently than it is already by comets and comet debris. In other words, without Jupiter, impacts such as the one that is thought to have wiped out the dinosaurs would be common.

“Here is how the protection system works. Jupiter is two and a half times more massive than all the other planets combined. Because of its huge mass, thus huge gravity, and its location between the earth and the cloud of comets surrounding the solar system, Jupiter either draws comets (by gravity) to collide with itself, as it did in July 1994, or, more commonly, it deflects comets (again by gravity) right out of the solar system. In Wetherell’s words, if it were not for Jupiter, ‘we wouldn’t be around to study the origin of the solar system.’

“Neither would we be around if it were not for the very high regularity in the orbits of both Jupiter and Saturn. Also in July 1994, French astrophysicist Jacques Laskar determined that if the outer planets were less [orbitally] regular, then the inner planets’ motions would be chaotic, and Earth would suffer orbital changes so extreme as to disrupt its climatic stability. In other words, Earth’s climate would be unsuitable for life… Thus even the characteristics of Jupiter and Saturn’s orbits must fit within certain narrowly defined ranges for life on Earth to be possible…” (The Creator and the Cosmos, pp. 137-138).

C)  The size of the moon, and its distance from the earth are fine-tuned for life on earth as well. Its size and weight help stabilize the earth’s tilt on its axis so that we experience four seasons. The moon’s near circular orbit makes its influence on the earth very stable.

D)  The moon and the sun regulate ocean tides on earth which help cleanse the coasts and circulate the water in the oceans. The moon’s size and its distance from earth are optimal for maximum benefits of tides. Fred Meldau states: “If the moon were half as far away, or twice its present diameter, great tides would wreck most of our harbors…If the moon were smaller and farther away, it would not have sufficient pull on our tides to cleanse our harbors or adequately rejuvenate (with oxygen) the waters of our oceans” (ibid, p. 31).

11).  Water’s remarkable properties that support life on earth in many ways are well known. It has a very high boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius and a low freezing point of 0 degree Celsius which make water slow to boil or freeze. This is very important for the creatures and the ecosystem in the water. If water boiled or froze easily, changes in the oceans, lakes and other bodies of water would cause all organisms living in the water to die. 

Water is also a ‘universal solvent’ with the ability to dissolve many particles. 

When water freezes into ice, it expands, enabling ice to float over liquid water. During winter when lakes freeze, they freeze from the top down to deeper levels of water. If ice did not float, the lake would freeze from the bottom to the top killing all the ecosystem in the lake. As a solid, water has low thermal conductivity which enables the ice to insulate the water below from the cold temperature above. Thus the water below can remain as a liquid at a temperature at which the creatures living in it can continue to survive. 

Sun’s radiation is crucial for life. Water permits the sun’s radiation to penetrate up to a depth of 500 meters which sustains plant life through photosynthesis which sustains animal life in the rivers, lakes and oceans. 

How does water get these unique properties that are so critical for supporting life? It is made possible by its quantum forces being ‘just right.’ Writes Lisa Grossman: “Water’s life-giving properties exist on a knife-edge. It turns out that life as we know it relies on a fortuitous, but incredibly delicate, balance of quantum forces.

“Water is one of the planet’s weirdest liquids, and many of its most bizarre features make it life-giving. For example, its higher density as a liquid than as a solid means ice floats on water, allowing fish to survive under partially frozen rivers and lakes. And unlike many liquids, it takes a lot of heat to warm water up even a little [high specific heat], a quality that allows mammals to regulate their body temperature [as in cooling of the body due to evaporation of sweat].

“Most of them arise due to weak hydrogen bonds that hold H2O [water] molecules together in a networked structure. For example, it is hydrogen bonds that hold ice molecules in a more open structure than in liquid water, leading to a lower density. By contrast, without hydrogen bonds, liquid molecules move freely and take up more space than in rigid solid structures.

“Yet in simulations that include quantum effects, hydrogen bond lengths keep changing thanks to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which says no molecule can have a definite position with respect to the others. This destabilizes the network, removing many of water’s special properties. “It breaks down big time,” says Philip Salmon of the University of Bath in the UK.

“How water continues to exist as a network of hydrogen bonds, in the face of these destabilizing quantum effects, was a mystery.

“In 2009, theorist Thomas Markland, now at Stanford University in California, and colleagues suggested a reason why water’s fragile structure does not break down completely. They calculated that the uncertainty principle should also affect the bond lengths within each water molecule, and proposed that it does so in such a way as to strengthen the attraction between molecules and maintain the hydrogen-bond network. “Water fortuitously has two quantum effects which cancel each other out,” Markland says.

“We are used to the idea that the cosmos’s physical constants are fine-tuned for life. Now it seems water’s quantum forces can be added to this “just right” list.” (New Scientist, October 19, 2011”

12).  The carbon atom is very basic to life. It is one of the abundant elements on earth, found in chlorophyll that gives plants their green color, coal and diamonds. “What you may not realize, though, is that about 18% of your body (by weight) is also made of carbon. In fact, carbon atoms make up the backbone of many important molecules in your body, including proteins, DNA, RNA, sugars, and fats.

“Why is carbon so popular for making molecular backbones? Why don’t we instead use, say, oxygen for the same purpose? For one thing, carbon-carbon bonds are unusually strong, so carbon can form a stable, sturdy backbone for a large molecule. Perhaps more important, however, is carbon’s capacity for covalent bonding. Because a C atom can form covalent bonds to as many as four other atoms, it’s well suited to form the basic skeleton, or “backbone,” of a macromolecule. 

‘These highly complex, nearly 10 million carbon-based compounds found in living things are called organic compounds.’

“Carbon’s ability to form bonds with four other atoms goes back to its number and configuration of electrons. Carbon has an atomic number of six (meaning six protons, and six electrons as well in a neutral atom), so the first two electrons fill the inner shell and the remaining four are left in the second shell, which is the valence (outermost) shell. To achieve stability, carbon must find four more electrons to fill its outer shell, giving a total of eight and satisfying the octet rule. Carbon atoms may thus form bonds to as many as four other atoms.” (https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/properties-of-carbon/carbon/a/carbon-and-hydrocarbons)

Dr. John Ashton wrote about the scientists’ proposition that carbon and other elements formed as a result of nuclear synthesis of lighter atomic particles in stars, “The famous Cambridge astronomer Fred Hoyle studied the reactions necessary to produce carbon, and calculated the energy levels in the carbon atom. He concluded that in order for carbon to have its unique chemical properties its energy levels had to be so finely tuned that the probability that they could have been generated by blind forces of nature is utterly minuscule.” (Dr. John Ashton, Evolution Impossible: 12 Reasons why Evolution Cannot Explain the Origins of Life on Earth”, p147-148, 2012).

After his studies of the carbon atom, Fred Hoyle commented: "Some super-calculating intellect must have designed the properties of the carbon atom, otherwise the chance of my finding such an atom through the blind forces of nature would be utterly minuscule. A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a super intellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question." (Fred Hoyle, “The Universe, Past and Present Reflections; Engineering and Science, November 1981, p.12).

13).  How is spaceship earth powered? It has two engines: one that keeps it moving in its orbit around the sun, and the other that keeps it rotating about its axis. 

To understand how the first engine works, we must define two forces, centripetal force and centrifugal force, that are two sides of the same coin. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, Centripetal force is defined as, “The component of force acting on a body in curvilinear motion that is directed toward the center of curvature or axis of rotation,” while its counterpart centrifugal force is defined as, “The apparent force, equal and opposite to the centripetal force, drawing a rotating body away from the center of rotation, caused by the inertia of the body.”

We know that the sun’s massive gravitational pull is pulling the earth towards its center. If there is no force to counteract it, the earth would simply crash into the sun and burn up. But there is a force that counteracts the gravitational pull of the sun. To understand that force, we need to understand Newton’s First Law of Motion, which states that, “A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion unless it is acted upon by an external force.” It is also known as the law of inertia. 

If the earth was moving through space in a straight line, its inertia will cause it to continue in a straight line unless an outside force causes it to change its speed or direction. For the earth to continue in its circular orbit around the sun without any change in speed, centripetal force must be continuously applied at a right angle to its path. That centripetal force is provided by the sun’s gravitational pull. 

Here is the multitude of factors that have to be taken into consideration in determining the distance of the earth from the sun at which it must follow a circular orbit around the sun, and the speed at which it must travel in its orbit:

If the earth’s speed were slightly less, the earth would gradually be pulled into the sun and burn up, extinguishing all life, as on the planet Mercury on which the daytime temperature is about 600 degrees Fahrenheit (or 316 degrees Celsius).


If the speed were slightly higher, the earth would gradually move away from the sun and become a frozen wasteland like the planet Pluto with a temperature of about minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit (or minus 186 degrees Celsius), also killing all life.

 
We have assumed that the earth’s orbit around the sun is circular. In fact, one of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion states that all orbits are ellipses, with the earth’s orbit being only slightly elliptical. Even the average distance of the earth from the sun varies slightly over time due to the gravitational effects of the other planets. Therefore, the speed of the earth’s rotation around the sun and its distance from the sun are even more precisely fine-tuned to take into account these effects to keep conditions on earth varying within a very narrow range to keep life thriving.

The second engine that drives spaceship earth to heat the planet and drive plate tectonics includes the decay of the four radioactive isotopes uranium-238, uranium-235, thorium-232, and potassium-40 deep inside the earth’s core. The radioactive decay supplies the heat to keep the earth cozy at a livable temperature. Plate tectonics are responsible for the development of continents and mountains. Like a massive conveyor belt, one end of a plate slowly sinks into the earth whereas at the other end, rock is rising from the mantle. Similarly, plates collide to build mountains and the process of weathering, erosion by wind and water tears down the mountains. These processes prevent the earth from becoming  entirely a water world. 

Plate tectonics also drive the Earth’s carbon dioxide - rock cycle. Plant matter gets converted into coal, methane and oil stored underground. When used these fossil fuels emit greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and others. The greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere, which helps regulate the temperature on earth to keep it in the livable range. Without greenhouse gases, the earth would become an icebox.

The second engine of radioactive decay in the earth’s core also heats the outer liquid iron layer which produces a dynamo effect, creating convection currents which generate the earth’s magnetic field, stretching tens of thousands of kilometers into space. Like a forcefield, it protects us by deflecting deadly solar winds and from cosmic rays which would harm our skin.

Jeremiah 10:12 (NIV) rightly proclaims, “But God made the earth by his power; he founded the world by his wisdom and stretched out the heavens by his understanding.”

14).  Not only are the earth and solar system fine-tuned for life, the universe is also extremely fine-tuned. Some fundamental constants in the universe are set at a very narrow, life-permitting range. If these numbers were changed very slightly, no physical life could exist anywhere. William Lane Craig discusses three such quantities in his video “The Fine Tuning of the Universe.” (https://evolutionnews.org/2017/11/ids-top-six-the-fine-tuning-of-the-universe/). 

As an illustration, here is his discussion on the degree of precision of the Gravitational Constant required for life to exist. He states, “Force of gravity is determined by the Gravitational Constant. If this constant varied by just one part in 10^60 (read as 10 raised to the 60th power) parts, none of us would exist.” Compare that to the number of cells in your body at 10^14. The number of seconds that have ticked by since the creation of the universe are 10^20. “If the Gravitational Constant had varied by just one part in 10^60, then the universe would have expanded and thinned out so rapidly that none of the stars could have formed and life could not exist, or collapsed back on itself with the same result - no stars, no planets, no life.”

Discoveries about the universe are constantly being made with ever more powerful telescopes and scientific instruments. Scientists generally agree that there are some 25 or 26 fundamental constants in the universe that point to its fine-tuning. Here are some observations from physicists on the fine-tuning of our universe (all of them do not believe in God):

“Imagine you can play God and fiddle with the settings of the great cosmic machine. Turn this knob and make electrons a bit heavier; twiddle that one and make gravitation a trifle weaker. What would be the effect? The universe would look very different -- so different, in fact, that there wouldn't be anyone around to see the result, because the existence of life depends rather critically on the actual settings that Mother Nature selected.

“Scientists have long puzzled over this rather contrived state of affairs. Why is nature so ingeniously, one might even say suspiciously, friendly to life? What do the laws of physics care about life and consciousness that they should conspire to make a hospitable universe? It's almost as if a Grand Designer had it all figured out.” (Paul Davies, New York Times, April 23, 2003)

In his best-selling book, A Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking (the famous Cambridge astronomer) stated: "The remarkable fact is that the values of these numbers (i.e. the constants of physics) seem to have been very finely adjusted to make possible the development of life" (p. 125).

"For example, if the electric charge of the electron had been only slightly different, stars would have been unable to burn hydrogen and helium, or else they would not have exploded...It seems clear that there are relatively few ranges of values for the numbers (for the constants) that would allow for development of any form of intelligent life. Most sets of values would give rise to universes that, although they might be very beautiful, would contain no one able to wonder at that beauty.” 

Hawking concluded that this was evidence of “a divine purpose in Creation and the choice of the laws of science (by God) (ibid. p. 125).

Dr. David D. Deutch, an atheist physicist at Oxford remarked: “If anyone claims not to be surprised by the special features that the universe has, he is hiding his head in the sand. These special features are surprising and unlikely.”

The fine-tuning in the universe is so conspicuous that scientists have become advocates for The Anthropic Principle which asserts that the universe was intentionally planned and brought into existence to create mankind. Even atheist or agnostic scientists, while not espousing the Anthropic Principle fully admit to the universe being ‘fine-tuned’ or ‘too-contrived’ or there being ‘too many coincidences’ for it to have come into existence by chance.

Dr. Gerald Schroeder in his blog (http://geraldschroeder.com/wordpress/?page_id=49#) quotes several famous scientists on their views about fine-tuning of the universe:

Dr. David Deutch of the Institute of Mathematics, Oxford University: “If we nudge one of these constants just a few percent in one direction, stars burn out within a million years of their formation, and there is no time for evolution [shows Dr. Deutch does not believe in God, but must recognize from the evidence that the universe is fine-tuned]. If we nudge it a few percent in the other direction, then no elements heavier than helium form. No carbon, no life. Not even any chemistry. No complexity at all.” 

Dr. Paul Davies, noted author and professor of theoretical physics at Adelaide University: “The really amazing thing is not that life on Earth is balanced on a knife-edge, but that the entire universe is balanced on a knife-edge, and would be total chaos if any of the natural ‘constants’ were off even slightly. You see,” Davies adds, “even if you dismiss man as a chance happening, the fact remains that the universe seems unreasonably suited to the existence of life — almost contrived — you might say a ‘put-up job’.”

Professor Steven Weinberg, a Nobel laureate, writing in the journal “Scientific American”, states: “how surprising it is that the laws of nature and the initial conditions of the universe should allow for the existence of beings who could observe it. Life as we know it would be impossible if any one of several physical quantities had slightly different values.

“Although Weinberg is a self-described agnostic, he cannot but be astounded by the extent of the fine-tuning. He goes on to describe how a beryllium isotope having the minuscule half life of 0.0000000000000001 seconds must find and absorb a helium nucleus in that split of time before decaying. This occurs only because of a totally unexpected, exquisitely precise, energy match between the two nuclei. If this did not occur there would be none of the heavier elements. No carbon, no nitrogen, no life. Our universe would be composed of hydrogen and helium.”

“Michael Turner, the widely quoted astrophysicist at the University of Chicago and Fermilab, describes the fine-tuning of the universe with a simile: The precision is as if one could throw a dart across the entire universe and hit a bulls eye one millimeter in diameter on the other side.”

“Roger Penrose, the Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford, discovers that the likelihood of the universe having usable energy (low entropy) at the creation is even more astounding, namely, an accuracy of one part out of ten to the power of ten to the power of 123 (10^10^123). This is an extraordinary figure. One could not possibly even write the number down in full, in our ordinary denary (power of ten) notation: it would be one followed by ten to the power of 123 successive zeros! (That is a million billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion zeros.)

“Penrose continues, Even if we were to write a zero on each separate proton and on each separate neutron in the entire universe — and we could throw in all the other particles as well for good measure — we should fall far short of writing down the figure needed. The precision needed to set the universe on its course is to be in no way inferior to all that extraordinary precision that we have already become accustomed to in the superb dynamical equations (Newton’s, Maxwell’s, Einstein’s) which govern the behavior of things from moment to moment.

“Cosmologists debate whether the space-time continuum is finite or infinite, bounded or unbounded. In all scenarios, the fine-tuning remains the same.”

Here is a list of some other fine-tuning parameters from the web site https://kgov.com/fine-tuning-of-the-universe:

  • The number of electrons and protons in the universe is the same to a standard deviation of one in ten to the thirty-seventh power, that is, 1 in 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (37 zeros), which yields our electrically neutral universe.
  • All fundamental particles of the same kind are identical (protons, electrons, photons, etc.)
  • The electron and the massively greater proton have exactly equivalent opposite charges.
  • The electron to proton mass ratio (1 to 1,836) is perfect for forming molecules.
  • The free neutron decays in minutes whereas it is stable within the nuclei of all the non-radioactive elements (otherwise eventually only hydrogen would exist because the strong nuclear force needs neutrons to overcome proton repulsion).
  • The electromagnetic and gravitational forces are finely tuned for the stability of stars.
  • The electromagnetic force constant is perfect for holding electrons to nuclei. 
  • The electromagnetic force in the right ratio to the nuclear force. 
  • The strong (nuclear) force (which if changed by 1% would destroy all carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and heavier elements).


One simply cannot argue with an irrational mind. With all this evidence of fine-tuning in the universe and earth available, atheist and evolutionist thinking is beyond human rationality. There is no other rational explanation for the fine-tuning of the universe and the earth to make it ideal for the existence of life, and the incredible complexity of even the simplest life forms than that a Supremely Intelligent Master Designer carefully planned it all out, designed it and brought it into being. 

Master clock of the Universe

We use watches to keep track of time. But household clocks can be inaccurate and have to be adjusted to the correct time. In the USA, until 1967, the Master Clock to correct time was kept at the Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. The astronomers at the Observatory tracked the precise motion of the earth to accurately measure time. The Creator God made the heavens and set this Master Clock in motion, and mankind learnt to measure its accuracy to keep time accurately.

The old Grandfather pendulum clocks in which the pendulum took one second to swing in one direction and another second to swing in the other direction, recorded using metal gears, were typically accurate to about 15 seconds per day, with the best ones being accurate to about 5 seconds per day. The next improvement came with digital watches which use the oscillations of a quartz crystal counted using digital counters, which are typically accurate to within one second per day, with the best ones being accurate to within 0.1 second per day. This accuracy is made possible because the quartz crystal oscillates at 60 cycles per second reliably. The quartz crystal could not have created itself out of nothing and decide to oscillate accurately at 60 cycles per second. It demands a Creator to plan out the properties of a quartz crystal, then create it, and sustain its properties with power. 

Further improvements in clocks came with the discovery of the oscillating properties of other elements and means to count the oscillations. The next improvement came with the development of ‘atomic clocks,’ which began to be used in 1967. The principle behind an atomic clock is that certain atoms in a defined state oscillate reliably at much higher frequencies than the pendulum or the quartz crystal. 

The International System of Units (SI) defines the second as the time it takes a cesium 133 atom at rest at a temperature of 0 degree Kelvin [-273.15 degrees celsius] to oscillate precisely 9,192,631,770 times. This produces measurement of time accurate to within one second every 30 million years. Surely the cesium 133 atom did not create itself out of nothing and start oscillating precisely 9,192,631,770 times per second, without any variation.

Scientists are constantly working to improve the accuracy of the clocks. Next improvement after the atomic clock came with the optical clock developed by scientists of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Optical clocks use atoms or ions [cooled down mercury ions] that oscillate at the frequency of approximately one quadrillion (one million-billion) per second, which is in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. By using lasers to count these oscillations, scientists can now measure time even more accurately to one second every thirty billion years. Thus, the optical clocks are about 1,000 times more accurate than atomic clocks. 

The mechanical clocks and watches and the digital clocks were adjusted according to the time measured by the motion of the earth in the heavens by the Master Clock in the National Observatory in Washington before 1967. Surely no atheist in his or her right mind is going to claim that the Grandfather clocks, mechanical or digital watches created themselves. They were intelligently designed first and then created. Even the atomic and optical clocks first were thought through by scientists, then designed and finally created. The cesium atom and the mercury ions could not have created themselves out of nothing and started oscillating without variation at such high frequencies. If the sum total of humanity’s experience forces us to reach that conclusion, it forces us to reach the conclusion that atheists are fools who claim that the Master Clocks of the universe, the earth and the heavens, the cesium atoms or mercury ions created themselves out of nothing and started functioning according to well-defined laws of physics by themselves, and continue to do, whose properties humans have learnt to harness to accurately measure time. God has rightly said, “The fool has said in his heart, there is no God.” (Psalm 14:1). 

The idea of my teenage years that ‘the theory of evolution must be right because the best and brightest minds on earth, the scientists believe in it, and they cannot all be wrong,’ has been proven wrong. The best and brightest minds who have honestly explored the universe and other wonders of creation with an open mind have reached the inevitable conclusion that the earth and the heavens (the universe) were created for the purpose of creating physical life. 

God says in Isaiah 45:18, “For thus says the Lord that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he has established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the Lord; and there is none else.”

And we can only agree with Solomon in Proverbs 3:19, “The Lord by wisdom founded the earth, by understanding He established the heavens.”

Though at present no physical life exists anywhere else than on earth, as science has not found any evidence of it, that does not mean that only the earth will have life. The Bible shows that humans after they inherit eternal life will have the potential to create life on other planets. God said through Moses in Deuteronomy 4:16-19 (NLT), “16 So do not corrupt yourselves by making an idol in any form—whether of a man or a woman, 17 an animal on the ground, a bird in the sky, 18 a small animal that scurries along the ground, or a fish in the deepest sea. 19 And when you look up into the sky and see the sun, moon, and stars—all the forces of heaven—don’t be seduced into worshiping them. The Lord your God gave them to all the peoples of the earth.”

God has literally allocated all the suns, moons and planets in the universe to people on earth, after they are made immortal sons and daughters of God, to create life as God created it on earth as a pattern to follow.




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